Top Four for Washington and California

The Top Two System in Action: Washington State 2008-2012: This report analyzes the results of Top Two in Washington State over three election cycles, demonstrating the lack of voter choice and competition that has resulted from the use of that system. It also simulates the results under a Top Four system, demonstrating that it retains the nonpartisan preliminary election of Top Two while ensuring enhanced competition and expanded choice for voters.

Recommended Reforms to Improve California's Top Two Primary System: This policy perspective recommends two changes to the California Top Two system that can be implemented by statute, preserving the constitutional amendment put in place by Prop. 14. It also offers a more significant change that would require amending the California Constitution.